The first signatories to the treaty — members of different nations in North America — put their names on the document in 2014 at the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana, with the goal of allowing the free flow of the animals across the international border and restoring the spiritual and cultural connections between bison and Indigenous peoples.
At the center of the Snowbowl controversy is the resort’s snowmaking operations, an increasingly necessary tool as climate breakdown causes snowfall to be less predictable. Snowbowl manufactures its artificial snow with reclaimed water from Flagstaff’s sewage system, a method approved by the forest service as part of an earlier resort expansion plan in 2005. It was the first resort in the country to use reclaimed water for snowmaking; since then a ski area in Montana and one in California have also adopted the practice.
Without a ban, there is about a 30% risk that narwhals will become extinct in east Greenland by 2025, rising to 74% by 2028, an analysis by Hobbs found. Last year the eastern hunting districts did not catch enough narwhals to fill their quotas, says Ugarte, which he sees as a sign that the mammals are not as abundant as the hunters claim. Hunters, however, blame the unusual presence of killer whales in the fjords this year, which might have scared the narwhals away.
Indigenous leaders exercised their treaty rights for rapid and effective recovery measures, while helping people rethink what endangered species conservation means. The many groups helped weave western and Indigenous knowledge and skills to produce a robust program for conserving caribou.
“Today we are here resisting in order to exist,”
– Ãngoho Pataxó, a relative and leader of the Pataxó Hã-Hã-Hãe people at Katurama village